WHY A WHEELBARROW INCLUDE 3 EASY MACHINES:

WHAT A WHEELBARROW?

Wheelbarrows are compound machines. It includes three simple machines. they’re lever, wheel and axle, and inclined aircraft. A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, typically with simply one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided with the aid of a single character the use of two handles to the rear or a sail can be used to manual the historical wheelbarrow by way of wind. hope you need best wheelbarrow for the money.
WHY A WHEELBARROW includes 3 easy MACHINES:
best wheelbarrow
Wheelbarrows use a couple of simple device to reduce the effort had to do a task, making them compound machines. including greater simple machines spreads the attempt and pressure required to do the job and allow the tool to do multiple activity.
LEVERS:
As a lever, wheelbarrows carry heavy loads while minimizing the attempt required. Levers consist of resistance hands, attempt arms and a fulcrum. In magnificence 2 levers, just like the wheelbarrow, the resistance arm is in the center between the fulcrum and the effort arm. The wheelbarrow’s attempt arms are the handles that the individual uses to lift up the heavy load inside the barrow. The barrow and its heavy load are the resistance arm that push down. The wheel is the fulcrum that permits the wheel barrow to pivot up and down.

best wheelbarrow
WHEEL AND AXEL:
Wheelbarrows have a wheel on the fulcrum with a smaller, cylindrical axle on the center. The wheelbarrow’s wheel and axle help it circulate with out friction, making it less difficult to push and pull. as with any wheel and axle assemblies, the wheelbarrow’s wheel and axle have a length ratio that corresponds to the quantity of pressure implemented to the axle and distance that the wheel covers. for instance, the wheel’s radius can be 10 times larger than that of the axle. while pressure is applied to the wheelbarrow’s axle (by means of pushing the wheelbarrow), the axle does 10 times extra work but travels one-tenth of the gap. when the wheel turns, it covers 10 times more floor than the axle could if it were journeying on the floor. The wheel, however, simplest calls for one-10th of the attempt carried out to it.
inclined aircraft:
simplest whilst a wheelbarrow is tipped ahead or on it is side is it taken into consideration to consist of an inclined plane. Wheelbarrow’s use of an incline plane works nice while it is being pushed forward after which tipped downward permitting the user to slide cloth from the wheelbarrow downward onto the ground.
common makes use of FOR A WEELBARROW:
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Wheelbarrows are designed to distribute the load of its load among the wheel and the operator so permitting the handy motion of heavier and bulkier loads than might be possible have been the weight carried absolutely by way of the operator.

some common makes use of for a wheelbarrow include:

construction:

Masonry and concrete workers often use metal wheelbarrows to mix concrete and mortar. while these specialists can also use concrete vans and cement mixers for huge batches of concrete, many residential restore jobs only require a small quantity of concrete to be combined. A masonry people pours concrete into the bowl of the wheelbarrow after which sprays water into the concrete powder. Then he uses a shovel to mix the water and concrete, taking care to spray off any unused concrete out of the wheelbarrow while the aggregate begins to harden. other construction employees and handymen use wheelbarrows to transport small quantities of construction materials by hand. If a small amount of debris or creation waste have to be wiped clean up or the job web page does no longer function heavy device, wheelbarrows are used by construction workers to remove debris and waste.

Landscaping:
Landscapers visibly regulate the herbal environment of a bit of property. professional landscapers might also use large vans to move mulch and gravel, however they may use a wheelbarrow that allows you to delivery materials from a huge pile to their preferred place. Residential landscapers use wheelbarrows to move smaller timber and shrubs for planting and bring fertilizer to shrubs and timber.
Gardening:
Gardeners use wheelbarrows to reduce the pressure on their backs whilst moving huge baggage of top soil and compost. while planting a large lawn, plant trays healthy inside the basin of the wheelbarrow, requiring fewer journeys to transport flowers to a lawn. Wheelbarrows are also beneficial for weeding, as a wheelbarrow may be moved thru the rows of a garden and weeds may be loaded up and dumped in another vicinity. every other modern use of wheelbarrows is for loading and transporting sticks which can be mendacity around the yard, in order that your lawnmower blade does no longer turn out to be chipped. a few gardeners even use vintage wheelbarrows as permanent bins for plant life, despite the fact that the bottoms eventually rust out.
undercover agent PIXTON comedian introduction interest:
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Are you prepared to have fun? Are you equipped for a project? in that case, then head over to pixton.com and get commenced on our subsequent activity. in this pastime we can ask all sellers to create a full page comic that discusses how a wheelbarrow is a compound device.
bear in mind, this comic needs to be funny whilst at the same time explaining how levers, wheel & axels, and willing planes paintings collectively to make a wheelbarrow. Be creative!
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Wheelbarrows bring extra goods from region to vicinity the use of much less force than a person may want to convey them. In fact, someone could ought to make several journeys to carry the gadgets by hand. With the assist of the wheelbarrow’s two easy machines—the lever and the wheel and axle—people can keep time during the system of hauling.

Top 3 Must Have Gardening Apps

Organic Gardening Planting Planner

this cool app calculates the most excellent developing period in your flowers. the use of its built in gps gadget, the natural gardening planting planner determines your genuine place.  if you want to  buy  best wheelbarrow under $100 you must read our article.

then based totally up the weather situations and any scheduled frosts, the app calculates the best time to plant. no more leaving your planting to chance; get the most out of every harvest by means of the usage of this app.

similarly, the organic gardening planting planner also offers useful recommendation approximately deciding on plants to your weather and the way to generally tend your garden.

this app makes gardening easy and reachable, mainly for the newbie gardener.

Gardening Reference Guide

additionally known as the landscapers accomplice, this app is the gardener’s remaining reference guide.

this guide offers the entirety you could need to recognize approximately pests, planting times, in addition to useful statistics approximately lots of different timber, shrubs, flowers and every different plant species.

Gardening Toolkit

for $1.ninety nine, acquire get entry to to the gardening toolkit. this app consists of useful hints approximately planting as properly and includes thousands of images.

but, the satisfactory function of this app is the planting tracker; thru the gardening toolkit’s interactive feature, keep track of what vegetation you’ve got planted where to your lawn.

further, you may make your self important reminders and keep track of when and wherein

Gorilla Carts GOR866D Heavy-Duty Garden Poly Dump Cart

The gorilla carts gor866d heavy-responsibility garden poly dump cart is a much less traditional searching wheelbarrow, however it takes all the effort right out of lawn or yard work. the 40 inch by 25-inch poly mattress has a 1200 pound (550 kg) sporting capability, and due to the fact it is crafted from poly plastic it’ll in no way rust or tarnish its practically indestructible if you dont abuse it! the ability to push or pull this cart is a great addition to an already appealing product, as it means that it could be used by every age although we might usually recommend parental supervision for appreciably younger children.

because it has four 13-inch tires it is able to be used on just about any terrain without the chance of tilting over or getting stuck if it is too heavily loaded. the take care of is adjustable for pushing, pulling, or towing from a lawn tractor or atv. if youre still not convinced, this product comes with a 1-year warrantee that should seal the deal. if anything goes wrong in those first 365 days, youll be able to get it replaced very quickly in any respect. best  wheelbarrow ever 2017.

Master of Science in Nursing Ranked 24th Nationally by U.S. News and World Report, Jan 01, 2014 | By Ferris State University

Ferris State University ranked 24th, nationally, on the U.S. News and World Report list of “Best Online Graduate Nursing Programs.” The rankings were released this week. Ferris’ Master of Science in Nursing was rated 24th – tied with Drexel University, based in Philadelphia; Johns Hopkins University, of Baltimore, Md.; Old Dominion University, of Norfolk, Va.; the University of Central Florida, in Orlando; the University of Kansas, in Lawrence; and the University of Michigan-Flint. Ferris and UM-Flint were the top-ranked online nursing schools in the state of Michigan. Primary factors considered in the newly-released 2014 U.S. News and World Report rankings include: faculty credentials, graduation rates, as well as student services and technologies. “The continued ranking of our MSN online program confirms the great work that has been done by our faculty, staff and academic advisors,” said Matthew Adeyanju, dean of the College of Health Professions. “We congratulate the School of Nursing and all those involved in our MSN program.”

Nursing5Historically, Ferris’ nursing programs have provided career mobility options for students in pursuit of a start in the field of nursing in addition to helping nurses who are seeking advanced degrees at the undergraduate level, with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, and at the graduate level, with the MSN. Ferris is at the top among Michigan-based MSN programs and in the top 25 percent, nationally, as ranked by U.S. News and World Report. “The School of Nursing and the university have placed a clear focus on the categories reflecting the U.S. News and World Report ranking: student engagement, faculty credentials and training, admissions selectivity, and student services and technology. These are all areas where the demand for online education continues to grow rapidly,” said Susan Owens, MSN program coordinator and an assistant professor of Nursing at Ferris. “Peer assessment is a new category in the rankings this year, so this rating affirms that the innovative-and evidence-based practices used in our courses were recognized. We’re pleased to offer a program that demonstrates an outstanding example of effective online program delivery.” The School of Nursing enrolls approximately 100 students in its MSN program, which features a learner-centered curriculum designed to equip nurses with the knowledge and skills that are vital for a variety of advanced specialty practice roles. The MSN features three concentrations in specialty leadership roles: nursing administration, nursing informatics and nursing education. As a fully online program, the university attracts students and instructors from across the country to create a diverse student population as well as instructional experts in nursing leadership roles. Ferris’ graduate nursing program is accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing. “Through our MSN program, we strive to provide career mobility through flexible programming for the working nurse,” Owens said. “The School of Nursing is especially fortunate to have outstanding support from Ferris’ Technology Assistance Center, where IT experts demonstrate the utmost support for online students and faculty providing amazing and immediate technical assistance.”

Growth in 2012 health care spending remained at record low, Jan. 07, 2014 | By Tony Pugh

newsWASHINGTON Total public and private spending for health care in the United States increased to nearly $2.8 trillion in 2012, or nearly $9,000 per person, according to a government report released Monday. That 3.7 percent increase from 2011 marked the fourth straight year that national health care spending has grown at the lowest rates ever recorded in the 53 years that the data has been tracked. “The low rates of national health spending growth and relative stability since 2009 primarily reflect the lagged impacts of the recent severe economic recession,” when many Americans lost job-based health coverage and postponed or reduced their doctor visits and medical care as a result, said Anne B. Martin, an economist in the Office of the Actuary at the federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Because total health spending grew more slowly than gross domestic product, the share of the economy devoted to health care fell slightly in 2012 to 17.2 percent, from 17.3 percent in 2011. It was the first such decline in health care spending as a share of the nation’s overall economic output since 1997.

Spending for health services typically stabilize two to three years after a recession, as pre-negotiated prices for medical services work their way through the health system and more people become eligible for public programs like Medicaid, said Aaron Catlin, deputy director of CMS’ National Health Statistics Group.

The aftermath of a recession also causes employers to adjust the type and generosity of coverage they provide, while consumers curb their consumption of medical care.

“Those types of decisions are not often immediately impacted during a recession,” Catlin said. “You see those changes in behavior occur several years after the recession.” From 2010 to 2012, Martin said, the Affordable Care Act has had a “minimal effect” on aggregate national health care expenditures, accounting for an increase of less than one-tenth of 1 percent over the three-year period. Provisions of the health law that have positively and negatively affected health care spending include Medicaid rebates for prescription drugs, expanded Medicare drug coverage and dependent coverage for children under age 26. Another contributing factor has been the law’s requirement that insurers spend at least 80 percent of premium revenue on medical claims or quality improvements. The real impact of the health care law on national health expenditures won’t be reflected in a meaningful way until 2014 data is detailed. That will include the impact of an estimated 9 million-plus new Medicaid recipients and millions of Americans who must purchase health coverage in 2014 or face a fine under the law’s individual mandate.

Many wonder if the improving growth rates reflect a larger, more fundamental change in the health sector that will endure. The report’s authors were unable to answer that question in an article that summarized their findings in the January issue of the journal Health Affairs.

“From our perspective, more historical evidence is needed before concluding that we have observed a structural break in the historical relationship between the health sector and the overall economy,” the report stated.

The overall growth in 2012 health expenditures was driven by spending increases for hospital care – the largest component of national health spending – patient out-of-pocket expenses, physician and clinical services and spending for Medicaid, the federal-state insurance program for the poor and disabled. Offsetting those increases were notable declines in 2012 spending growth for retail prescription drugs, nursing care services, private health insurance and expenditures for Medicare, the federal health insurance program for older Americans.

Spending for hospital services, which grew by 4.9 percent and totaled $882 billion in 2012, was mainly because of higher prices and greater use of higher-level care. Spending for physician and clinical services grew 4.6 percent in 2012 to $565 billion because of increased usage and greater complexity of services being sought.

Spending for Medicaid increased 3.3 percent in 2012 to $421.2 billion. That’s up from a 2.4 percent increase in 2011. Both increases represented the smallest growth rates in the program’s history, except for 2006 when the Medicare prescription drug benefit was implemented. The new drug benefit changed the way Medicaid paid for some beneficiaries’ prescription drugs.

Out-of-pocket spending for co-pays and deductibles reached $328 billion in 2012, up 3.8 percent from 2011 because of increased cost sharing for physician and clinical services.

Spending for prescription drugs reached $263.3 billion in 2012, up just 0.4 percent from 2011. The slow growth was because of a large number of blockbuster drugs, like Lipitor, Plavix and Singulair, losing their patent protection, which led to greater sales of cheaper generic equivalents.

Premiums for private health insurance grew by 3.2 percent, to $917 billion, in 2012. That’s down from a 3.4 percent increase in 2011. The slower growth rate was mainly because of lower overall enrollment growth and increased enrollment in cheaper high-deductible plans.

Medicare spending grew slightly in 2012, reaching $572 billion, even though the program’s enrollment jumped 4.1 percent for the largest one-year bump in 39 years as the first wave of aging baby boomers began joining the program. Despite the enrollment increase, Medicare spending grew at a slower rate in 2012 than in 2011 because of a one-time payment reduction for skilled nursing facilities.

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Education

A high school diploma or a GED is a prerequisite for a hospital CNA, as is completion of a CNA certification program. Most community colleges and many hospitals and healthcare facilities offer such programs—typically a twelve-week course that includes both theory and practice. The course covers training in basic nursing skills and safety, and the basic concepts of hygiene, nutrition, infection control and life support. The certification course also reviews some human anatomy and physiology. Through the program, students will gain at least 100 hours of supervised training and at least 50 hours of classroom training, although some states only require 75 total hours. Once students complete the certification program, they take the CNA certification exam.

Training

Most CNAs receive training on the job, even with the certification program.

Licensing and/or Certification

CNA certification applicants must be at least sixteen years old and have completed a CNA certification program (see above) within the last two years. In addition, some states require a criminal background check (conducted by the Department of Education).

CNA certification applicants take the CNA certification exam, which is administered under the auspices of the American Red Cross, over the course of one day. The exam consists of two parts. The first, the theoretical portion, is written and has seventy multiple-choice questions. The second part of the test, the practical portion called “Skill Evaluation,” requires applicants to perform five skills randomly chosen by the testers on a volunteer acting as a patient. Once hospital CNAs pass the written test and perform each of the five skills correctly, they receive the National Nurse Aide Assessment Program (NNAAP) certification and are listed in the Nurse Aide Registry

The findings suggest a big need for more knowledge and training.

CHICAGO — People who collapse from cardiac arrest in poor black neighborhoods are half as likely to get CPR from family members at home or bystanders on the street as those in better-off white neighborhoods, according to a study that found the reasons go beyond race.
The findings suggest a big need for more knowledge and training, the researchers said.
The study looked at data on more than 14,000 people in 29 U.S. cities. It’s one of the largest to show how race, income and other neighborhood characteristics combine to affect someone’s willingness to offer heart-reviving help.
More than 300,000 people suffer a cardiac arrest in their homes or other non-hospital settings every year, and most don’t survive. A cardiac arrest is when the heart stops, and it’s often caused by a heart attack, but not always. Quick, hard chest compressions can help people survive.
For their study, researchers looked at the makeup of neighborhoods and also the race of the victims. They found that blacks and Hispanics were 30 percent less likely to be aided than white people. The odds were the worst if the heart victim was black in a low-income black neighborhood.
The researchers also found that regardless of a neighborhood’s racial makeup, CPR was less likely to be offered in poor areas. That shows that socio-economic status makes more difference than the neighborhood’s racial makeup, said lead author Dr. Comilla Sasson, of the University of Colorado in Denver.
While few people in poor black neighborhoods got CPR, those who did faced double the odds of surviving. Overall, only 8 percent of patients survived until at least hospital discharge, but 12 percent of those who got bystander CPR did versus just 6 percent of those who did not.
The following list, adapted from the report, spotlights the fastest-growing occupations that are projected to see at least 8 percent growth and 30,000 jobs added from 2013 through 2017.

THE FINDINGS SUGGEST A BIG NEED FOR MORE KNOWLEDGE AND TRAINING

The findings suggest a big need for more knowledge and training.

CHICAGO — People who collapse from cardiac arrest in poor black neighborhoods are half as likely to get CPR from family members at home or bystanders on the street as those in better-off white neighborhoods, according to a study that found the reasons go beyond race.

The findings suggest a big need for more knowledge and training, the researchers said.
The study looked at data on more than 14,000 people in 29 U.S. cities. It’s one of the largest to show how race, income and other neighborhood characteristics combine to affect someone’s willingness to offer heart-reviving help.

More than 300,000 people suffer a cardiac arrest in their homes or other non-hospital settings every year, and most don’t survive. A cardiac arrest is when the heart stops, and it’s often caused by a heart attack, but not always. Quick, hard chest compressions can help people survive.

For their study, researchers looked at the makeup of neighborhoods and also the race of the victims. They found that blacks and Hispanics were 30 percent less likely to be aided than white people. The odds were the worst if the heart victim was black in a low-income black neighborhood.

The researchers also found that regardless of a neighborhood’s racial makeup, CPR was less likely to be offered in poor areas. That shows that socio-economic status makes more difference than the neighborhood’s racial makeup, said lead author Dr. Comilla Sasson, of the University of Colorado in Denver.

While few people in poor black neighborhoods got CPR, those who did faced double the odds of surviving. Overall, only 8 percent of patients survived until at least hospital discharge, but 12 percent of those who got bystander CPR did versus just 6 percent of those who did not.

The following list, adapted from the report, spotlights the fastest-growing occupations that are projected to see at least 8 percent growth and 30,000 jobs added from 2013 through 2017.

FOUR GOOD REASONS TO BE A CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANT

The findings suggest a big need for more knowledge and training.Congratulations! You have decided that you would like to seek more information about the rewarding job of a certified nursing assistant. It is important to learn more about what a C.N.A. does and some of the challenges that you might face as a C.N.A.
Why do you want to be a C.N.A.?

It is important to choose this job for the right reasons. In society this job doesn’t receive the respect that it deserves. Here are some good reasons for wanting to become a C.N.A.:

1. I always wanted to be in the medical field. – As a C.N.A you will be focused on personal care opposed to medical care but it gives you more time to interact with the patient and also to observe other jobs that you may interest you in the medical field.

2. I want to accomplish something important in my life. – As a C.N.A. you are making a difference in not only the lives of the patients that you help, but also their friends and families. You are helping make many peoples lives more comfortable, and it can be a very rewarding experience. You also make a difference for the nursing staff. Nurses are very high in demand right now and your job tasks allow for the nurses to be able to see more patients and provide more care.

3. I want to earn a stable income. – As a C.N.A. you will be able to maintain a stable income and expect to make anywhere from $9.00 – $14.00 an hour to start. (depending on your location)

4. I hope to be a nurse someday. – As a C.N.A. you will get to work directly with the nursing staff and observe what they do. This is an excellent opportunity to ask questions and learn more about nursing from someone with experience. What are some of the challenges I might face?

1. Being around older or disabled people. – Some people are uncomfortable being around older or disabled people. Most jobs as a C.N.A. will have you working around the elderly or the disabled. Once you overcome your fears you will be more understanding and a better C.N.A.

2. Sights you may see in a nursing home. – You may observe a lot of things that are very difficult to watch. You are working with a lot of different patients with many different conditions. One day you might observe a wife coming to visit her husband and he doesn’t remember who she is. You might have patients asking you to take them home. Or have someone tell you that a loved one is coming to visit and that person passed on many years ago. You may also experience the patients hurting themselves or loved ones, and sometimes trying to harm you. You have to look at these situations and ask yourself “How can I make this better?”

3. Fears of death or sickness – As you get to know your patients you begin to fear that they may become sick or die. Or you might even worry that you or a loved one may get sick or die. If you do experience death at work you should try to remember that you helped make their life better.

4. Fear of aging. – As you work around the elderly you may develop fears of aging. The best way to deal with this is to talk to someone and to remember that everyone ages and that as along as you take care of yourself then you will be fine.

If you are still interested in becoming a C.N.A. you should find out what your state and local requirements are to obtain certification.

UN-EXTRAORDINARY MEASURES: STATS SHOW CPR OFTEN FALLS FLAT

(CNN) — In his 20 years of practicing emergency medicine, Dr. David Newman says, he remembers every patient who has walked out of his hospital alive after receiving CPR.

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In fact, out of the hundreds of CPR patients who have come to the New York hospitals where he has worked, Newman recalls no more than one individual a year making a full recovery.

Since it was introduced to American physicians in 1960, cardiopulmonary resuscitation has become a staple of emergency medicine. Between 2011 and 2012, more than 14 million people in 60 countries were trained in CPR administration, according to the American Heart Association (PDF).

But recent studies suggest that the number of lives saved by CPR isn’t as many as your favorite TV police drama would have you believe

Initially, CPR combined mouth-to-mouth breathing with chest compressions to keep blood and oxygen circulating throughout the body until further measures could be taken to restart the heart. In 2008, the American Heart Association began teaching “hands-only CPR,” in which the rescuer pushes down hard and fast in the center of the chest — about 100 compressions per minute — and forgoes rescue breaths.

The new CPR procedure was developed to simplify the process and eliminate the “yuck factor” that potential rescuers could associate with putting their mouths on an unconscious victim. Studies showed that the modified procedure was as effective as chest compressions combined with artificial respiration.

Yet despite advancements, the overall effectiveness of CPR remains disappointingly low — although the practice still has its defenders.

Exact survival rates are difficult to come by, as studies generally look at specific populations. A 2012 study showed that only about 2% of adults who collapse on the street and receive CPR recover fully. Another from 2009 (PDF) showed that anywhere from 4% to 16% of patients who received bystander CPR were eventually discharged from the hospital. About 18% of seniors who receive CPR at the hospital survive to be discharged, according to a third study (PDF).

So when did the misconception about the effectiveness of CPR begin? Some researchers argue that television created the myth. Between 1994 and 1995, researchers from Duke University watched 97 episodes of “ER,” “Chicago Hope” and “Rescue 911,” taking note of when CPR was administered during each show.

In these dramas, 75% of patients survived immediate cardiac arrest, and two-thirds were discharged from the hospital with full brain function, a stark contrast to the much smaller percentage found by medical studies.

Newman says the few who do survive after CPR are what physicians describe as the “healthy dead”: i.e. “a boy who drowned moments before,” “a man who collapses while running a marathon” or someone experiencing a mild heart attack.

More common are the “unhealthy dead”: those with terminal illnesses, the chronically ill and patients who do not receive CPR within five to 10 minutes of cardiac arrest.

“In these cases, (CPR) is unnecessarily burdensome, invasive and arguably cruel, with little to no chance of benefit,” Newman said. Many survivors suffer abdominal distention or broken rib cages; some have severe brain damage from being without oxygen for so long.

Still, trauma workers, including physicians, nurses and EMTs, are required to do anything and everything in their power to revive the patient unless an advance directive — a specific written and signed order — specifies that resuscitation should not be performed.

Many veteran physicians have begun to opt out of the resuscitation practices they often administer to their patients. In a 2012 article published in The Guardian, “How Doctors Choose to Die,” retired physician Dr. Ken Murray reveals that members of his profession frequently turn down everything from chemotherapy to CPR.

He notes that years of witnessing and administering “medical care that makes people suffer” leads many doctors diagnosed with terminal illnesses to choose to spend their last months or years at home and without medical treatment. Murray recalls some fellow physicians who go as far as getting tattoos that read “no code” to remind rescuers to forgo any attempts at revival.

“People have too high expectations about what’s going to happen,” he said. “They think you’re going to do CPR and 99 out of 100 times (the patient will) be revived, which is just not the case.”

Not everyone agrees. Saying that CPR is ineffective is “the wrong attitude” and a “self-fulfilling prophecy,” said Dr. Michael Sayre, former chairman of the American Heart Association’s Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee. “If you expect it to go poorly, than it will.”

Instead, he says, we should be doing more studies: for example, comparing CPR teaching methods with cardiac arrest survival rates in major cities in the United States to understand how and when the technique is most effective.

In some cities that have less CPR training, the survival rate is indeed low, Sayre says. But in other metropolitan areas with strong training programs and quick EMS response times, half or more victims survive.

Sayre suggests teaching CPR in schools nationwide starting in seventh grade, as well as increasing access to automated external defibrillators, portable machines that shock the heart to get it to “reboot.” Using an AED, according to Sayre, increases the probability of survival to 80%.

Promising research continues for substitutes to CPR, but “there are no reasonable alternatives” yet, Newman said. For now, emergency care providers have to use what they know.

That doesn’t mean Newman is happy with that reality. He remembers when he started as an EMT: “I was led to believe that for those who experienced cardiac arrest, if you put your heart into reviving them, they would come back.”

Murray is still an advocate for learning CPR, but he warns against hoping for miracles.